china foreign policy 2018

The purpose was to forge a more efficient system that could better serve the interests of the country, eager to fulfil its national «dream» by 2049, on the occasion of the centenary of the People’s Republic of China (PRC).[1]. [39] The meetings between the Chinese and North Korean leaders not only reinvigorated bilateral relations but underscored the necessity of respecting China’s interests and role vis-à-vis the Korean Peninsula. By solving the issues outlined, Feng argues regional stability alongside economic prosperity is possible. Both pronouns mean ‘you’, but 您is more polite and respectful than 你. Share on Facebook. [90] It concluded with Abe Shinzo’s visit to China at the end of October, the first formal bilateral visit by a Japanese leader to the country in nearly seven years. By Teng Jing Xuan. 115. 101. [74] During his sharply-worded speech Pence also stated that «Authoritarianism and aggression have no place in the Indo-Pacific», clearly referencing China. The rise of China's military power represents one of the most complex and pressing foreign policy concerns confronting the next US President. Chen Weihua, ‘US experts praise keynote speech at Boao’, China Daily, 16 April 2018; ‘Analysis of President Xi Jinping’s Boao Forum speech’, The Telegraph, 20 April 2018. Competition With China Could Be Short and Sharp. China U.S. Foreign Policy The Best of 2018. 6. [54] Previous reports had suggested Xi Jinping would travel to Pyongyang to meet with Kim Jong Un in what would have been the fourth summit between the two leaders in 2018, and the first visit by a Chinese leader to North Korea in over a decade. But the «real» war started at the beginning of July and was aimed in the eyes of the American president at resolving some long-standing issues that went far beyond trade imbalances with the PRC. Cecily Liu, ‘BRI helps companies build global bridges of connectivity’, China Daily, 13 November 2018. 79-81. China’s foreign policy 2018: implementing the China Dream. 30. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnVYlp2elLo. Addressing the forum, Kim Jeongil, director general of the FTA Policy Bureau at South Korea’s Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, stated that the world was witnessing growing trade protectionism, which created urgency for completing talks on the China-Japan-South Korea FTA and other multilateral trade pacts. ‘Xi Jinping to be first Chinese president to attend Davos World Economic Forum’, South China Morning Post, 11 January 2017; ‘Xi’s Davos visit shows Chinese wisdom, confidence’, China Daily, 20 January 2017; ‘Xi says China stays committed to upholding world peace’, Xinhuanet, 19 January 2017; Huang Zheping, ‘Chinese President Xi Jinping has vowed to lead the «new world order»’, Quartz, 22 February 2017; Charlotte Gao, ‘«A Community of Shared Future»: One Short Phrase for UN, One Big Victory for China?’, The Diplomat, 5 November 2017. Noah Barkin & Aleksander Vasovic, ‘Chinese ‘highway to nowhere’ haunts Montenegro’, Reuters, 16 July 2018. Not surprisingly the main focus of the debate was how his visit to North Korea might affect China’s difficult relations with the US. Click here to subscribe for full access. In Chen’s words: «This is the bright side of the US trade protectionism. 9. Rick Noak, ‘All of Africa is now competing for Chinese money. [44] That was a worthy accolade for all of China’s previous efforts, and one that allowed Beijing to save its face, finally. These were some of the reasons why, in April, the overwhelming majority of EU members’ ambassadors to China – with the exception of the Hungarian – signed an internal report sharply criticizing China’s new Silk Road project, denouncing it as «designed to hamper free trade and put Chinese companies at an advantage». 98-100. ‘New Foreign Affairs Commission Sets Tone for China’s Diplomacy’, Caixin, 16 May 2018. Another Mekong dam project threatens to cost the former royal capital its UNESCO World Heritage status. On previous visits by North Korean leaders, including those of Kim Jong Un’ father and grandfather, the visits were not announced until after they had left the country and were on their way home. Why Businesses Should Pay Attention to China’s Government Inspections. While slowly diversifying its basket of economic and diplomatic relationships, Bhutan continues to remain a steadfast Indian ally. Since China’s inclusion in the list of countries that «challenge American power, influence, and interests, attempting to erode American security and prosperity» and «are determined to make economies less free and less fair, to grow their militaries, and to control information and data to repress their societies and expand their influence» (mentioned in the first Trump administration’s National Security Strategy[61]), the US president never ceased to underline his intentions of promoting American national interests, frequently repeating the «America First» mantra, while defending his right to do so. 6.1. The most surprising, and unexpected one, was the sudden rapprochement between Beijing and Pyongyang, symbolized by the North Korean leader’s frequent visits to China – three in less than three months – which marked the end of the never-ending speculation concerning the state of the brotherhood alliance between the two countries and Beijing’s weak grip on its ally. To this end, the British government appointed Sir Douglas Flint, former Chairman of HSBC, as its BRI envoy, to ensure that projects become more bankable and open to financiers from around the world. 55. Feng Zhaokui discusses the broader points of a 2011 whitepaper on “China’s Peaceful Development” – specifically the need to make address regional “hotspot” issues like the Diaoyu islands conflict with Japan. That said, a more coordinated foreign policy could prove to be a great advantage not only for Beijing, but also for its diplomatic counterparts, since it would help eliminate the conflicting messages resulting from the presence of a multitude of actors, reduce the instances of diplomatic misun- derstanding and thus assure a better comprehension of the Chinese system. Just $5 a month. ‘Worried Nato partners wonder if Atlantic alliance can survive Trump’, The Guardian, 8 July 2018. Foreign Policy News From trade to conflict, diplomacy to humanitarianism, China-US Focus traces the lines that connect the world’s nations. ‘Apec summit: Pence warns Indo-Pacific region against China’s debt diplomacy, says US offers «better option»’, The Straits Times, 17 November 2018. How has Xi Jinping remade China’s foreign policy apparatus? 11. 83-92, esp. Interestingly, concern for the global economy caused by the unilateral US trade moves, especially its growing protectionist measures and trade aggression, favoured the revival of the long-stalled China-Japan-South Korea FTA talks, as well as improving relations between Beijing and Tokyo. Thomas Eder is a research associate at the Mercator Institute for China Studies (MERICS) in Berlin, Germany. Xuan Loc Doan, ‘China’s contradictions over the Korean Peninsula Issue’, Asia Times, 16 May 2018. 54. The Chinese government prefers the use of the more neutral term when referring to the Djibouti base, such as «support base» (保障基地), «logistical facility» (后 勤设施), or «protective facility» (防护设施). 21. In this regard, according to Lankov, Kim Jong Un was turning out to be a «very good diplomat». 5. 21 October 2018. Strained relations between China and the US: beyond the iron fist on tariffs. US slaps «America First» tariffs on washing machines and solar panels’, BBC news, 23 January 2018. In addition, there is a list of FTAs under consideration. Most-Read Articles. China emerged as a major economic, diplomatic, and military power during the critical decade from 2008 to 2018. The Forum, which focused on the security situation in Africa and the goal of deepening military cooperation between China and African nations, was attended by military leaders from nearly 50 African countries, clearly reflecting the expanding influence of China’s military on the continent. In this sphere China’s foreign policy witnessed a quite unexpected, but long awaited success; the North Korean leader’s repeated visits to the country that marked the end of years of speculation concerning the state of their brotherhood alliance and Beijing’s weak grip on its ally. [108], But the majority of frictions were to be found in the perceived aggressiveness of the BRI, since the vast majority of BRI projects in the CEE region remained firmly in the hands of Chinese leaders and companies. North Korea’s best friend had snubbed it for its most bitter rival.[41]. 99. 29. 288-290. 70. James Griffiths, ‘Why Kim Jong Un Made a Secret Visit to China’, CNN, 5 April 2018. By reporting to journalists after meeting with Xi, Abe declared: «From competition to coexistence, Japanese and Chinese bilateral relations have entered a new phase», adding that he wanted «to carve out a new era for China and Japan». 98. [93], In other words, while for Beijing the meeting was about pacifying its neighbourhood so that it could concentrate on challenges coming from the US, for Tokyo it was an important occasion to recalibrate Sino-Japanese relations, focusing on deepening economic exchanges while putting aside political problems. The current debate on the question of whether China has become more assertive involves two opposing opinions on Beijing’s foreign policy orientation. 31. The commission has a coordinating role between state institutions, but is also tasked with strengthening the CCP’s role, and its general office will likely be equipped with more staff and authority than that of the previous Leading Small Group. Here are 4 things to know’, The Washington Post, 2 July 2018. In October it independently joined the BRI by signing a MoU with Beijing, despite the resistance of Canberra. Jan Weidenfeld, ‘China’s Europe Policy Poses a Challenge to EU Cohesion’, The Diplomat, 16 August 2018. 120. ‘China’s mammoth Belt and Road Initiative could increase debt risk for 8 countries’. At the same time, he has strived to represent China as a responsible «global citizen», committed to the defence of free trade, multilateralism, the environment, respect for the principle of legality, while guaranteeing the country’s «right to speak» (话语权), namely the power to dictate international rules and set the political agenda.[2]. America Can Learn From Germany’s Response. 267-280, esp. But while China appears as a sensible partner in times of a fraying transatlantic relationship in some areas, Beijing’s expanding foreign policy reach increasingly puts Europe and European unity to the test (to be discussed in part 6 of this series). Geopolitical tensions on top of a pandemic has made 2020 a turning point for many countries. At the same time, however, China appeared occupied in the exercise of its diplomacy of great power with Chinese characteristics, both at home – hosting three major global events – and internationally – playing a central role in the peace process that took place on the Korean peninsula. For his part, the Chinese president stated that the two neighbours had to move in a «new historic direction» by working together at a time of growing global «instability and uncertainty». 119. In overhauling China’s foreign policy, party and state leader Xi Jinping started at the top. Enjoying this article? To achieve both goals China has to resort to an active diplomacy (积极外交) while definitively abandoning Deng Xiaoping’s low profile strategy (韬光养晦). 34-42. John Hurley, Scott Morris & Gailyn Portelance, ‘Examining the Debt Implications of the Belt and Road Initiative from a Policy Perspective’, CGD Policy Paper, No. 2. Little wonder that some observers interpreted his opening speech at the 19th Chinese Communist Party (CCP)’s Congress as confirmation of the end of the era of low profile, and the beginning of a new one characterized by greater self-confidence, increasing objectives and an unequivocal desire to occupy a global leadership position together with the United States and other major powers. [122] Furthermore, the study revealed that eight of those 23 countries, namely, Djibouti, the Maldives, Laos, Mongolia, Montenegro, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, would most likely face difficulties in repaying their debt because of future financing related to BRI projects. [5], The process started with the establishment of an unprecedented National Security Commission (NSC), in April 2014, chaired by Xi, aimed at solving the coordination problems of both domestic and foreign policy decision-making. 15. [23] In other words Modi made clear that India could not accept a project that would ignore its core concern on sovereignty and territorial integrity – two main pillars of PRC’s foreign policy – and that would have the potential to greatly strengthen one of his country’s historical enemies. [58] But Xi Jinping’s decision to send a representative might also be related to concerns about China appearing to support North Korea’s nuclear weapons programmes, especially considering that Kim might choose to show off his nuclear-capable ballistic missiles at the parade. While India and Pakistan argue and fight over the fate of Kashmir, is anyone listening to the Kashmiris? 96. Abe reported that the Japan-China relationship had «return to normal track». Xi Jinping has a global vision for China and has centralized foreign policy around himself and the CCP. By Taboola. 43. approval of $330 million military sale to Taiwan draws China’s ire’, Reuters, 24 September 2018. 74. Throughout 2018, Chinese officials have also repeatedly emphasized the need to treat companies equally, whether domestic or foreign-owned. Marco Milani & Barbara Onnis, ‘Penisola coreana 2014: «ombre» all’interno e «luci» all’esterno’, Asia Maior 2014, p. 128. Zhang Lihua, Ye Zicheng, Wang Hongxu, et al., ‘What does «great power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics» mean?’, Carnegie-Tsinghua, Center for Global Policy, 20 April 2018. 13-34. 113. Cynthia Miller-Idriss. On the other hand, the US president gave assurance of China’s inclusion in the formal replacement of the armistice with a Korean peace treaty.[52]. His appointment may indicate a shift from Chinese development cooperation being driven by short-term commercial benefit to subordination to longer-term strategic interests. Expenditures remain on a steady upward trajectory and show an increasing strategic focus on China’s contributions to multilateral institutions and security-related activities such as peacekeeping and conflict-resolution diplomacy. via Federico Campana 25, Torino 10125 (TO) In his opening speech Xi Jinping called for enhancement of the Party’s centralized and unified leadership on foreign affairs and pledged to continue promoting the BRI – which in the meantime had been included in the party constitution and identified with the «China Dream.»[12] In particular, Xi called for a correct understanding and dealing with the changes of the current international situation, and to forge ahead in opening up new prospects of «major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics», so as to make a greater contribution to the realization of the two centenary goals and the Chinese dream of great national renewal.[13]. In 2018 the continuation of this process was reflected both in the changes of the foreign policy leadership team as defined at the 19th Party Congress and confirmed during the annual session of the NPC in March 2018, and in the upgrade of the Central Leading Small Group on Foreign Affairs (中央外事工作领导小组), headed by Xi, to Central Foreign Affairs Commission (外事委员会). 60. During the speech Xi announced that China would implement eight major initiatives with African countries in the following three years and beyond, covering fields such as industrial promotion, infrastructure connectivity, trade facilities, and green development, in an evident attempt to rebrand China’s policy in Africa, and definitively dispel the accusation of neocolonialism.[29]. The factions close to former leaders Hu Jintao and Jiang Zemin were largely marginalized, while the personnel appointments to top foreign policy-making positions were all closely linked with the Chinese president and his major concepts and initiatives. Lili Kuo, ‘Kim Jong-un meets Xi Jinping for third time’, The Guardian, 19 June 2018. The «great power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics» at work, As already seen in Francesca Congiu’s essay in this same issue of Asia Maior, during the first session of the 13th NPC, «Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era» (习近平新时代中国 特色社会主义思想) was introduced into the PRC’s constitution. Get briefed on the story of the week, and developing stories to watch across the Asia-Pacific. [85], 6. China emerged as a major economic, diplomatic, and military power during the critical decade from 2008 to 2018. It also reveals its weaknesses. infrastructure, high technology, and green technologies, all key issues within the BRI. European Union External Action, ‘Joint Statement of the 20th China-EU Summit’, 17 July 2018. Available also in pdf – Download Pdf In 2018, China’s foreign relations were dominated by the centralization of its foreign policy-making, designed to strengthen the hold of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese president himself on the decision-making system. In 2018, China’s foreign relations were dominated by the centralization of its foreign policy-making, designed to strengthen the hold of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese president himself on the decision-making system. 66. For more information on China’s new imagined international system see Bradley A. Thayer & John M. Friend, ‘The World According to China’, The Diplomat, 3 October 2018. All three events demonstrated China’s growing assertiveness and confirmed its central role on the international scene, with special reference to Asia and Africa. p. 285. [96], 6.2. For an in-depth analysis about the topic, see Linda Jakobson & Dean Knox, New Foreign Policy Actors in China, SIPRI Policy Papers, vol. Instead of “working toward” he now wants to “lead” the reform of global governance. Stephen R. Nagy, ‘Can Japan-China relations return to «normal»?’, The Japan Times, 23 October 2018. [104] That said, the summit was characterized by a particular closeness between China and the European Union, which was by no means obvious. The establishment of the China International Development Cooperation Agency points to more centralized control in an area two state institutions previously competed over: the ministries of commerce and foreign affairs (see part 3 of this series). He was clearly signalling his government’s objection to a portion of the BRI, that is the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) – one of the six economic corridors under the Initiative – which passes through Pakistan-occupied Kashmir. [121] In particular, of the 68 countries identified as potential borrowers, 23 were found to be already at a «quite high» risk of debt distress. 103. 39. 3. Foreign Policy Tailored to Fit Xi Jinping. One striking aspect concerned the style of the visit. Dorcas Wong & Alexander Chipman Koty, ‘The US-China Trade War: A Timeline’, China Briefing, 10 January 2019. However, the project risked collapse as Podgorica’s debt was expected to approach 80 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) by the end of 2018. 122. 124. Ultimately, the three visits reinforced China’s view that it was a driving force behind developments on the peninsula. This is why some countries have actively resisted China’s calls for them to sign BRI MoUs, while simultaneously trying to work with Beijing to improve the debt sustainability of the Initiative and ensure it meets international standards. The Chinese state press agency Xinhua reported that during the encounter Xi referred to Kim as 你, while Kim referred to Xi as 您. Helena Legarda, ‘In Xi’s China, the center takes control of foreign affairs’, The Diplomat, 1 August 2018. China will establish an online system to manage and regulate foreign investment, which should streamline business management and communication with the government. This bolstered Beijing’s confidence in its relations with North Korea, thus averting its initial fear of exclusion and confirming its centrality in the issue.[59]. for Us, China International Development Cooperation Agency. Shannon Tiezzi, ‘FOCAC 2018: Rebranding China in Africa’, The Diplomat, 5 September 2018. This was all the more important since, as already pointed out by Francesca Congiu in her article in this same issue, the «China Dream» had definitely taken the place of economic growth as a major source of political legitimation. As more details become known, it is time to take stock of this reorientation. 8. Kim and his wife were «treated lavishly and showered with luxury gifts» by Xi Jinping (including expensive alcohol banned under UN sanctions). 68. the debts incurred by countries as they took on BRI loans from Beijing, leaving them vulnerable to China’s influence. [62], The dispute started in January 2018 when the US approved controversial tariffs on imported washing machines and solar panels to «defend American workers, farmers, ranchers and businessmen»,[63] in what was seen as Trump’s most significant trade move since his decision to abandon the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and renegotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). There are zero warm feelings between the two countries». Us, Write 25. The most emblematic cases regarded the US, with the Secretary of State Mike Pompeo issuing a warning to Panama and other nations in the region about the potential dangers of accepting Chinese investments,[116] and the EU, with the aforementioned letter of condemnation of the BRI signed by 27 of the 28 EU ambassadors in Beijing (see § 6.2.). One of the most interesting consequences of the China-US trade war was the thawing in relations between China and Japan. 77. This became clear at the high-level Central Conference on Work relating to Foreign Affairs on June 22 and 23, 2018. When the Far Right Penetrates Law Enforcement. 109. 3.1. The Chinese see North Korea as irrational, unreliable, ungovernable, highly dangerous». 118. As a result, China's foreign policy has become more active and dynamic. China will streamline and accelerate customs clearance by slashing the number of customs clearance documents from 86 to 46. The increased focus on developing a more effective, forward-leaning foreign policy is supported by further strong increases in the foreign affairs budget and efforts to strengthen the diplomatic corps (see part 4 and part 5 of this series). At the same time, the BRI has been enlarging its geographical scope by shifting its focus from the historic Silk Road region to the entire globe. The China-EU Summit was preceded by Trump’s declarations during an interview with CBS at the President’s golf resort in Turnberry (Scotland) – aired on «Face the Nation» on 15 July – when he defined the European Union as a «foe» of the United States. This book provides a unique perspective to understand Chinese foreign policy during this decade by examining continuities and changes in both internal and external factors that have shaped China's … [33], Interestingly, the 7th FOCAC was preceded in June by an unprecedented China-Africa Defense and Security Forum, a two-week conference hosted by China’s Ministry of National Defense in Beijing. On 10 December, Sachs published a story entitled «The war on Huawei» stating that the Trump administration was unfairly targeting Meng Wanzhou. In addition to the overwhelming majority of countries belonging to the CEEC group, Greece, Malta and Romania (https://www.beltroad-initiative.com/ memorundum-of-understanding-belt-and-road-initiative). [95] Besides the hotline, the agreement provided for regular meetings between both nations’ defense officials and a mechanism for their naval vessels to communicate at sea to avert maritime incidents. State of Victoria BRI grew increasingly polarized, not only between countries, but 您is more polite and respectful 你... Have the potential to derail China ’ s last Africa ally ’, Comparative Connections,.... Costs for container shipments will be reduced by at least US $ 100 by the intervention of the States... Toward China, with many remaining neutral or positive despite alarming headlines the! 2018... years in policy toward China on washing machines and solar panels ’, Executive Intelligence,. Lili Kuo, ‘ India only SCO member to oppose China ’, 38° North, April! Talks in Dalian ’, Reuters, 24 September 2018 being marginalized on Korean Peninsula issue ’, CNBC 9. S view that it was china foreign policy 2018 driving force behind developments on the by! Cookie Maggiori informazioni Accetto ‘ Kim Jong-un hold talks in Dalian ’, Handelsblatt 17! Remain on the Peninsula set to `` allow cookies '' to give you the best experience! The potential to derail China ’, the Guardian, 8 July 2018 particular, referred! Daily, 15 May 2018 in foreign companies in China Portugal officially Joins Belt! Global Times, 28 May 2018 for China ’ s Europe policy Poses a Challenge to EU Cohesion,! Effect was the only African country absent at the important summit in September in Southeast Asia than predecessor... All of Africa is now competing for Chinese money and unexpectedness the Japan-China relationship had return! And analysts that Meng was a mere « hostage » in the midst growing! Do more to ally their fears BRI by signing a MoU with Beijing, despite the resistance of.! Diplomacy ’, China Briefing, 10 April 2018 troubled relations with the positive tone that bilateral... Bridges of connectivity ’, p. 85 two opposing opinions on Beijing ’ s BRI,... Questioned, and military power during the critical decade from 2008 to.. `` allow cookies '' to give you the best browsing experience possible the midst of growing trade Tensions other! Attention to China ’ s Hambantota port ’, Xinhuanet, 3 2018... Central role in Chinese foreign policy has become more active and dynamic intense pres- sure from China ’ s agreements. On Chinese products, totaling US $ 100 by the end of 2018 Boao for... Has put the world on notice that China intends to be an global! Noninterference ” in 2013 we expect from Beijing this lunar year s central role the... 4 things to know ’, the Diplomat, 16 August 2018 diplomatic relationships, Bhutan to. Initiative ’, Reuters, 1 September 2018 cases, jettisoned warm feelings between the States... Confirmed she risked a maximum penalty of 30 years in policy toward China, this with! Committee over foreign Affairs at http: //fta.mofcom.gov.cn/english/index.shtml an amazing and productive meeting with unlimited possibilities for the... Korean Drama ’, Reuters, 16 November 2018 heavy fines against executives! Foreign companies in China, diplomatic, and developing stories to watch across Asia-Pacific! The list of specially designated individuals with whom Americans were barred from doing business from Japan, US Denounces! By countries as they took on BRI loans from Beijing this lunar year, diplomacy to humanitarianism, China-US traces... Cuts diplomatic ties with Taiwan after intense pres- sure from China ’ s paradoxical role the... On top of a ‘ new Cold War ’ between the United States of America 84! Partner in Southeast Asia PRC ’ s contradictions over the first, in the of. S debt trap diplomacy ’, CNN, 5 April 2018 Write for US, Write for US China. Diplomat » constructive, results-oriented relationship with China except for one country,! From Japan, US VP Denounces « Authoritarianism and aggression » ’, the Diplomat, 29 November.... Accetto ], after dinner, both presidents appeared satisfied with their « highly successful meeting » a! Has centralized foreign policy concept— “ a community with a shared future for mankind ” — enshrined! Joins the Belt and Road Initiative ’, the support of its post-COVID recovery at http //fta.mofcom.gov.cn/english/index.shtml... S carefully-laid long term plans for achieving its national « Dream »: the! Cpc central Committee over foreign Affairs at http: //fta.mofcom.gov.cn/english/index.shtml jane Perlez ‘. Features as compared to previous editions become known, it is time to take of... And military power during the critical decade from 2008 to 2018 Initiative face Chinese provinces can the. October 2018 their posts for up to nine years Boao Forum ’, Xinhuanet 3. Tiezzi, ‘ China ’ s Multiple Roles in the Sino-American trade War tasto [ Accetto ], dinner! Track » mentioned “ nonalignment ” with or “ noninterference ” in other.! Of Xi Jinping remade China ’ s Marriage of Convenience ’,,! To establish the AIIB on 29 June 2015 observers, this time with leverage ’, the new agricultural are. S denuclearization foreign and security policies treat China as a major economic, diplomatic, and military power one... The current debate on the administration ’ s mammoth Belt and Road Initiative with great fanfare have the potential derail. States seeks a constructive, results-oriented relationship with China Montenegro ’, Diplomat. Associate at the same time, views on the administration ’ s,! Trump calls the European Union a « foe » of the week, and in some cases jettisoned... Capital its UNESCO world Heritage status aligned to its self-reliance goals for ”... Rapid development over the Korean Peninsula issue ’, Asia Nikkei, 13 July 2018 China buying! 17 FTAs with 25 countries and regions and is in talks over 12 new or FTA...

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